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  • Diagnosis & Management of Pulmonary Diseases

  • Evaluation and Management of Sleep Disorders

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COPD (Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease)

Chronic obstructive airway disease (COAD), also known as chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), is a term that is used for two closely related diseases of the respiratory system: chronic bronchitis and emphysema. In many patients these diseases occur together, although there may be more symptoms of one than the other. Most patients with these diseases have a long history of heavy cigarette smoking. Other risk factors of COPD include:

  • Exposure to air pollution at work and in the environment
  • Being secondary smokers due to exposure to large amount of smoke exhaled by a smoker
  • Frequent use of cooking fire with lack of proper ventilation

Symptoms

  • Shortness of breath
  • Fatigue
  • Chronic cough with or without mucus
  • Wheezing
  • Recurrent respiratory infections

Initially patients do not get to know that they are suffering from some disease condition. COPD gets gradually worse over time. As the disease progresses, the cough becomes more frequent and more and more effort is needed to get air into and out of the lungs. In later stages of the disease, the heart may be affected. Eventually death occurs when the function of the lungs and heart is no longer adequate to deliver oxygen to the body’s organs and tissues.

Diagnosis

Diagnosis of COPD may include:

  • Chest X-ray
  • Blood test to measure the amount of oxygen and carbon dioxide in the blood (arterial blood gas)
  • Lung Function Test (Spirometry)

In most of the cases COPD is detected late when the irreversible damage to the lungs has already began.

Treatment

There is no cure for COPD. The treatment aims at relieving symptoms and preventing further progression of the disease. Medications that may be prescribed include:

  • Bronchodilators to open the narrow airways. They are usually given as inhalers. In severe cases bronchodilators are given through nebulizer.
  • Anti-inflammatory medications or corticosteroids to lessen the inflammation of the airway walls. Usually corticosteroids are given as inhalers. In severe cases corticosteroids may need to be given orally or intravenously.
  • Antibiotics to treat or prevent infections. Usually antibiotics are given at the first signs of infection such as change in colour of the sputum to yellow or green. Infections make COPD worse.
  • Oxygen therapy may be given in case low level of oxygen is present in the blood.

Surgery

Surgery is rarely used and may involve removal of the diseased parts of the lungs. Lung transplant is done in very severe cases.

Prevention

Quitting smoking stops the progression of the disease. Medications may be prescribed to break the addiction and help patient to quit smoking.

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